The Maryland Biodiversity project thanks the many dedicated individuals who have painstakingly compiled Maryland natural history information. The following list of references will be continuously updated to reflect the great work that has been reviewed in creating the project.



Biechele, Lance. Freshwater Algae of the Lower Eastern Shore. August 2011. Except for the Charophycaea, which were verified by Russell L. Chapman (Louisiana State University), the algae (prior to 2010) were determined by David B.Czarnecki (Loras College, Iowa) and voucher specimens are maintained on cards or microscope slides at the Charles O. Wingo, Jr. Herbarium (SUHC).

Brook, A. J. & D. B. Williamson. 2010. A Monograph on some British Desmids. Ray Society, c/o The Natural History Museum, London.

Coesel, P. F. M. & Koos (J.) Meessters. 2007. Desmids of the Lowlands Mesotaeniaceae and Desmidiaceae of the European Lowlands. KNNV Publishing, Amsterdam.

Digital Image Collection of Desmids. Accessed 9/30/2010. (

Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. (; searched on 29 December 2012.

John, D. M. & D. B. Williamson. 2009. A Practical Guide to the Desmids of the West of Ireland. Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.

Patterson, D. J. 2003. Free-Living Freshwater Protozoa: A Colour Guide. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp. 1-223.

Ralfs. J. The British Desmidieae. 1962. Reprint. J. Cramer, Weinheim, Germany

Wolle. Francis. 1892. Desmids of the United States and List of American Pediastrums. Moravian Publication Office, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

Amphipods - Freshwater

Holsinger, John R. and L. Ansell. A new species of the subterranean amphipod genus Stygobromus (Amphipoda: Crangonyctidae) from two caves and a spring in western Maryland, USA with additional records of undescribed species from groundwater habitats in central Maryland. Zootaxa 3768 (3): 386–394. 2014.

Holsinger, John R. Systematics of the Subterranean Amphipod Genus Stygobromus (Crangonyctidae), Part II: Species of the Eastern United States. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 266.

Holsinger, John R. The Freshwater Amphipod Subspeciesceans (Grammaridae) of North America. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. September, 1976. (

Morales-Núñez, A. G., and P. Chigbu. 2016. A new species of Apolochus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridea, Amphilochidae) in Maryland coastal bays, USA with notes on its abundance and distribution. ZooKeys 571: 81-104. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.571.7440.

Animals (General)

Appendix List of the Invertebrates of Plummers Island, Maryland. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington, 15(1):192-226. 2008.

Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Animals of Maryland (April 2010). Maryland Wildlife and Heritage Service Natural Heritage Program (


AntWeb. Available from

Foard, Tim. Checklist of Maryland species compiled by Tim Foard.

Schlick-Steiner, B., et al. A multidisciplinary approach reveals cryptic diversity in Western Palearctic Tetramorium ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:259–273. 2006.


Droege, Sam. Checklist and record compilation.

Scarpulla, Gene. A Yearlong Survey of the Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of a Human-made Habitat Created from Dredged Material: Hart-Miller Island, Chesapeake Bay, Baltimore County, Maryland. Maryland Entomologist Vol. 6, No. 1. 2013.


Bousquet, Yves. Catalogue of Geadephaga (Coleoptera, Adephaga) of America, north of Mexico. ZooKeys 245:1-1722, 2012.

Brigham, Warren U. Illinois Natural History Survey. Key to adult Peltodytes of the U.S. and Canada (Coleopter: Haliplidae). (

Chandler, Donald S. Revision of the Genus Malporus Casey (Coleoptera: Anthicidae: Anthicinae). Coleopterists Bulletin 51(3):265-275. September, 1997. (

Clark, Shawn M., Andrea Rattu, and Davide Cillo. Monoxia obesula Blake, 1939, a species native to the U.S.A. and adventive to Sardinia, Italy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Galerucini). Zootaxa 3774 (1): 083–089. 2014.

Cunningham, Bly. Damage to Violin Bow Hair By Dermestid Beetle Larvae. The Maryland Naturalist: Vol 32, No. 3-4. September/December 1988.

Dunford, James C., Michael C. Thomas, and Paul M. Choate, Jr. University of Florida Entomology and Nematology Department. The Darkling Beetles of Florida and Eastern United States (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Draft, 2005.

Erwin, T. L. 1981. Natural History of Plummers Island, Maryland, XXVI. The ground beetles of a temperate forest site (Coleoptera: Carabidae): An analysis of fauna in relation to size, habitat selection, vagility, seasonality, and extinction. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington 5.

Gómez-Zurita, Jesús. 2005. New distribution records and biogeography of Calligrapha species, (Leaf Beetles), in North America (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae). Canadian Field-Naturalist 119(1): 88-100.

Glaser, John. Addenda to the Checklist of Maryland Scarabaeoidea. Maryland Entomologist Vol. 3, No. 1. 1987.

Gustafson, G. T., & Miller, K. B. 2015. The New World whirligig beetles of the genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae, Gyrininae, Dineutini). ZooKeys, (476), 1–135. Advance online publication.

Hagadorn, M. A. and D.L. Price. 2012. Quick Guide for the Identification of Maryland Scarabaeoidea. Salisbury University. Pp. 54:

Hardy, Alan. A Revision of the Hoplia of the Neararctic Realm (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Occasional Papers in Entomology: No.23, 1977.

Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences (ACES), Crop Science Extension and Outreach. Alfalfa Weevil. (

Johnson, P. A new species of Drapetes Megerle (Coleoptera: Elateridae), with taxonomic summaries and a key to the species of northern North America. Insecta Mundi Center for Systematic Entomology, Gainesville, Florida. 2015.

Kingsolver, J.M. Handbook of the Bruchidae of the United States and Canada. USDA, Technical Bulletin 1912 (2 vols.), 2004. (

Knull, J. Two New Species of Ctenicera (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Ohio Journal of Science: Vol 59, Issue 2, March, 1959.

Mathieu, Jean. Revision of the Genus Melanactes, with a Proposed New Genus (Coleoptera, Elateridae). American Midland Naturalist: Vol. 65. 1961.

Miller, K.B., G.W. Wolfe & O. Biström. 2006. Phylogeny of the Hydroporinae and classification of the genus Peschetius Guignot, 1942 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Insect Systematics and Evolution, 37: 257-279.

Miller, K.B., Bergsten, J. and Whiting, M.F., 2009. Phylogeny and classification of the tribe Hydaticini (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae): partition choice for Bayesian analysis with multiple nuclear and mitochondrial protein‐coding genes. Zoologica scripta, 38(6), pp.591-615.

Oygur, S. and Wolfe, G.W. 1991. Classification, distribution, and phylogeny of North American (north of Mexico) species of Gyrinus Mûller (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae).

Paiero, Steven M., Morgan D. Jackson, Adam Jewiss-Gaines, Troy Kimoto, Bruce D. Gill, Stephen A. Marshall. Field Guide to the Jewel Beetles (Coleoptera: Bupestridae) of Northeastern North America. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2012. ISBN: 978-1-100-19794-4.

Quate, L. & S. Thompson. Revision of Click Beetles of Geunus Melanotus in American North of Mexico (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Proceedings of the National Museum. Smithsonian Institution, 1967, Vol. 121, Number 3563.

Rabaglia, Robert. Annotated list of the bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) of Maryland, with new distributional records. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 105, (2003).

Slifer, Eleanor H., Thomas F. J. Gruenwald, and Sant S. Sekhon. The maxillary palp organs of a wood-boring beetle, Melittomma sericeum (Coleoptera, Lymexylonidae). Journal of Morphology 147:2. October 1975.

Spangler, P. J.; Staines, C.L.; Spangler, P.M.; and Staines, S.L. A Checklist of the Limnichidae and the Lutrochidae (Coleoptera) of the World. Insecta Mundi: Vol.15, No3, September, 2001.

Staines, C. L. Additional Records on Maryland Silphidae (Coleoptera). Maryland Entomologist 3(3):69-70 (1989).

Staines, C. L. An Annotated Checklist of the Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) of Maryland. The Maryland Entomologist, Vol. 2, No. 4. 1984.

Staines, C.L. The Belostomatidae (Hemiptera) of Maryland. The Maryland Entomologist, Vol. 2, No. 3, December 1983.

Staines, C. L. Carpophilus melanopterus Erichson (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) a Yucca specialist. The Maryland Naturalist 49(1-4):54-55, January/December 1996.

Staines, C. L. A Checklist of the Heteroceridae (Coleoptera) of Maryland. The Maryland Entomologist, Vol. 2, No. 3, December 1983.

Staines, C. L. The Cupedidae of Maryland (Coleoptera). The Maryland Entomologist, Vol. 2, No. 2, December 1982.

Staines, C. L. Distribution of Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Maryland. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 86(3), p. 702, 1984.

Staines, C. L. Distributional Records of Platypodidae (Coleoptera) in Maryland. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 84(4), pp. 858-859, 1982.

Staines, C. L. The Dryopidae (Coleoptera) of Maryland. The Maryland Entomologist, 3(2):30-32 (1988).

Staines, C. L. Dytiscidae or predaceous diving beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) of Plummers Island, Maryland. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington 15. 2008.

Staines, C. L. First Record in Maryland of Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse): (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 88(2), p.390, 1986.

Staines, C. L. The Meloidae (Coleroptera) of Maryland. The Maryland Entomologist, Vol. 2, No. 3, December 1983.

Staines, C. L. 1994. A "Monstrous" Lucanus elaphus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) from Maryland. Maryland Naturalist 38(3-4):17-18.

Staines, C. L. The Noteridae (Coleoptera) of Maryland. The Maryland Entomologist, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1988.

Staines, C. L. Notes on Little Known Maryland Beetles: I. Nosodendron unicolor. The Maryland Entomologist, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1982.

Staines, C. L. Observations on Gnorimella maculosa (Coleopters: Scarabaedae:Cetoniidae). Maryland Entomologist 3(3):67-68 (1989).

Staines, C. L. Observations on Two Beetles (Coleoptera) Feeding on Rumex (Polygonaceae) in Maryland with a Review of the Literature. The Maryland Entomologist, 3(3):78-79 (1989).

Staines, C. L. 1986. A Preliminary Checklist of the Hydradephaga (Coleoptera) of Maryland. Insecta Mundi 1(3): 118–155.

Staines, C. L. A Preliminary Checklist of the Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera) of Maryland. Insecta Mundi. Vol.1, No.4, December 1986.

Staines, C. L. The Rhipiceridae of Maryland (Coleoptera). The Maryland Entomologist, Vol. 2, No. 2, December 1982.

Staines, C. L. The Rhipiphoridae (Coleoptera) of Maryland. Vol. 2, No. 3, December 1983.

Staines, C. L. The Semiaquatic Beetles of Maryland: I. The Genus Omophron (Coleoptera: Carabidae). The Maryland Entomologist, Vol. 2, No. 3, December 1983.

Staines, C. L. Scientific Note: Dyscinetus morator (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Feeding on Roots of Azaleas (Rhododendron Spp.). Entomological News 101(2):98, March/April 1990.

Staines, C. L. Scientific Note: Peltodytes edentulus (LeConte) from Maryland (Coleoptera: Haliplidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin 38(4), 1984.

Staines, C. L. The Silphidae (Coleoptera) of Maryland. Maryland Entomological Society Euphydryas Phaeton Vol. 3, No. 1, 1987.

Staines, C. L. The Silphidae (Coleoptera) of Maryland. Maryland Entomologist Vol. 3, No. 1, 1987.

Staines, C. L. Survey for Calosoma Caterpillar Hunters (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Maryland 1992-1993. The Maryland Naturalist 38(1-2):31-36, January/June 1994.

Staines, C. L. A survey for Lucanus elaphus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) in Southern Maryland. The Maryland Naturalist 43(3-4):26-30. July/December 1999.

Staines, C. L. A Survey of the Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) Associated with Nursery Stock in Maryland. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 92(2), 1990, pp. 310-313.

Steiner, W. E., Jr. A Checklist of the Darkling Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) of Maryland with Notes on the Species Recorded from Plummers Island Through the 20th Century. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington 15, 2008.

Steiner, W. E. Records of Prateus fusculus LeConte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in Maryland and West Virginia, with Observations on Habitats and Known Distribution. The Maryland Entomologist: Vol.6, No.1. 2013.

Steury, Brent W., and Peter W. Messer. Noteworthy Beetle Records from Virginia and Maryland (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Buprestidae, Carabidae). Virginia Natural History Society. Banisteria. No. 45, 61-62. 2015.

Steury, Brent W., Pete W. Messer, and Joseph F. Cavey. Noteworthy Beetle Records from Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Chrysomelidae). Virginia Natural History Society. Banisteria. No. 44, 23-25. 2014.

Stibnick, J. North American Negastriinae (Coleoptera, Elateridae): The Negastriinae of the Eastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Insecta Mundi Center for Systematic Entomology, Gainesville, Florida.

Stork, N. E. 1984. Additions to the list of Carabidae (Coleoptera) in the fauna of Plummers Island, Maryland.—Coleopterists Bulletin 28 Carabidae of the World:

U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Baltimore CBP Intercepts First in Nation Destructive Beet Flea Beetle in Shipment of Italian Ceramic Tiles. November 2015.

Vorst, Oscar. A new invasive Ptinella Motschulsky from Europe and North America (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae). Zootaxa 3270: 63-66. 2012.


Official List of the Birds of Maryland (29 May 2012). Maryland / District of Columbia Records Committee (MD/DCRC) of the Maryland Ornithological Society. (

Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. Stewart and Robbins (1958). (

Breeding Bird Atlas Explorer (online resource). 2013. U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center & National Biological Information Infrastructure.

Czaplak, Wilds. Yellow-legged Gulls (Larus cachinnans) in North America. Wilson Bulletin: Vol. 106, Issue 2. 1994.

Iliff, Ringler, Stasz. Field List of the Birds of Maryland. Maryland Ornithological Society, 1996.("The Yellow Book")

Kaufman, Kenn (1996). Lives of North American Birds. ISBN 0-395-77017-3.

Robbins, Chandler S., senior editor; E. A. T. Blom, project coordinator; et al. 1996. Atlas of the breeding birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA. ISBN 978-0-8229-3923-8.

Sibley, D. A. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Solem, Bob and Jo. Howard County Bird Club bird site records. June 2013.

Stewart, R. E. and Chandler S. Robbins. 1958. Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia. North American Fauna No. 62. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service.

United States Geological Survey (USGS) (2013). Eskimo Curlew - A vanishing species? The Eskimo Curlew's Year Introduction to Oceanic Migration. (last updated 01-Feb-2013, last accessed 14-Apr-2013)

Unpublished data from Marshall Iliff, Matt Hafner, Bob Ringler, and many others.

Bryophytes (Mosses, Hornworts, Liverworts)

Biechele, Lance T. 2014. Riccia sorocarpa Bisch. A new liverwort record from Maryland. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 141(3): 273-274.

Darigo, C. A County Checklist of the Mosses of Maryland. Evansia, 26(4):193-218. 2009.

McAvoy, W., Knapp, W., and L. Biechele. 2011. An annotated checklist of the liverworts and hornworts of the Delmarva Peninsula. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society, 138(2).

Scarpulla, Eugene. Unusual Abundance of the Aquatic Liverwort Ricciocarpus natans (L.) Corda at Prettyboy Reservoir, Baltimore County, Maryland. The Maryland Naturalist: Vol. 32, No. 3-4. September/December, 1988.

Uebel, E. Maryland Bryophytes Collected by Elmer G. Worthley. Maryland Native Plant Society, Inc. 2000.


Butterflies and Moths of North America:

Butterflies of Massachusetts:

Butterfly Host Plants of Southeast Florida. Miami Blue Chapter of the North American Butterfly Association:

Cech, R. and G. Tudor. Butterflies of the East Coast: An Observers Guide.Princeton University Press, 2005.

Coastal Wildscapes:

Dallas County Lepidopterists' Society:

Glassberg, Jeffrey. Butterflies through Binoculars. Oxford University Press, 1993.

Kaufman, Kenn, Brock, Jim P. Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin: New York, 2003.

Larval Hostplant List for Butterflies of the Washington DC area:

Maryland Department of Natural Resources: Maryland’s Wildlife Species – Butterflies of Maryland. (

Maritimes Butterfly Atlas:

Pavulaan, Harry. A New Subspecies of Incisalia henrici (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) from the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The Maryland Entomologist, 4:2(1-16). 1998. (

Smith, R.H. (2012), "Butterfly Occurrence Chart for Maryland, Baltimore City, and District of Columbia"

Solem, Bob and Jo. Howard County Bird Club Lepidoptera site records. June 2013.

Wagner, David L. Caterpillars of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press, 2005.


Chilobase: A web resource for Chilopoda taxonomy. (

Shelley, R. M. 2002. A synopsis of the North American centipedes of the order Scolopendromorpha (Chilopoda). Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir 5:1-108.


State of Maryland – Crayfish Species Checklist. (

Swecker, Casey D., Thomas D. Jones, Jay V. Kilian, and Luke F. Roberson, Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Key to the Crayfish of Maryland. Draft Version - 2010.08, August 2010.

Decopods - Crabs, Shrimp, etc.

Counts, Clement L., Prezant, Robert S., Chapman, Eric J., "A Critical Checklist Of The Decapod Subspeciescea (Arthropda: Decopoda) Of The Atlantic Coastal Bays Of Maryland." The Maryland Naturalist 51 (2):85-112.

Nizinski, Martha. Annotated checklist of decapod Subspeciesceans of Atlantic coastal and continental shelf waters of the United States. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington Vol. 116(1), 2003.


Allen, Robert T. 2002. A Synopsis of the Diplura of North America: Keys to Higher Taxa, Systematics, Distributions and Descriptions of New Taxa (Arthopoda: Insecta). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Vol. 128, No.4, pp. 403-466.


Aguilar, Robert. Selected checklists from Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) surveys.

Altemus, V. Delaware’s Freshwater and Brackish Water Fishes. Dover: Delaware State College, 1991.

Ashton, Matthew and Patrick Ciccotto. First Records of Oriental Weatherfish (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) in Maryland. Northeastern Naturalist: Volume 17, Issue 4 (2010).

Kazyak, P. F., Raesly, R.L. A Key To The Freshwater Fishes Of Maryland. (

Kells, V., and Kent Carpenter. A Field Guide to Coastal Fishes From Maine to Texas. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011.

Love, Joseph W., Paulinus Chigbu, and Eric B. May. Environmental Variability Affects Distributions of Coastal Fish Species (Maryland). Northeastern Naturalist, 16(2):255-268. 2009. (

Love, Joseph W. and Eric B. May. Relationships Between Fish Assemblage Structure and Selected Environmental Factors in Maryland’s Coastal Bays. Northeastern Naturalist, 14(2):251-268. 2007.

Murdy, E., Ray Birdsong, and John Musick. Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997.

Murphy, Robert F., and David H. Secor. Fish and Blue Crab Assemblage Structure in a U.S. Mid Atlantic Coastal Lagoon Complex. Estuaries and Coasts 29:6B, p. 1121-1131. December 2006.

Page, L. and Brooks Burr. Freshwater Fishes. Houghton Mifflin: New York, 1991.

Rohde, F., Rudolf Arndt, David Lindquist, and James Parnell. Freswater Fishes of the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.

Werner, R. A Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of the Northeastern United States. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2004.


Eckerlin, Ralph P. The Fleas (Siphonaptera) of Maryland. Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 2011.

Flies (Diptera)

Borkent, C. J. & T. A. Wheeler. 2012. Systematics of Phylogeny of Leptomorphus curtis (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Zootaxa: 3549. 117 pages.

Carnegie Museum of Natural History, The Crane Flies (Diptera:Tipulidae) of Pennsylvania,

Maa, T. C. A Revised Checklist and Concise Host Index of Hippoboscidae (Diptera). Pacific Insects Monograph 20: February 1969.

O'Hara, J. E. and Wood, D. M. 2004. Catalogue of the Tachinidae (Diptera) of America north of Mexico. Memoirs on Entomology, International 18: iv + 410 pp.

Raney, H. Eastern Bombyliidae: (

Sinclair, B., Brooks, S., & Cumming, J. (2013). Revision of the Empis subgenus Enoplempis Bigot, east of the Rocky Mountains (Diptera: Empididae). Zootaxa, 3736(5), 401–456.

Spencer, Kenneth A., and George C. Steyskal, USDA Agricultural Research Service. Manual of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) of the United States - Agriculture Handbook Number 638. 1986. (

Thompson, Patrick. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Vol.93, No.4 (Dec. 1967).

Williams, Gaye L., and Gary J. Steck. Ophiomyia kwansonis Sasakawa (Diptera: Agromyzidae), the Daylily Leafminer, an Asian Species Recently Identified in the Continental United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 116.4 (2014): 421-428.

Freshwater Bivalves

McCann, J., Brinker, D. The Freshwater Bivalves of Maryland Field Identification Information. Maryland Department of Natural Resources: Natural Heritage Program. (

Freshwater Sponges

Watts, Tonya M., M. E. Norris, & J. M. Pieper, Jr. National Capital Region Network- Inventory and Monitoring Program : A New Record of Ephydatia Muelleri in Prince William Forest Park (PRWI). September 2010. (


Kuo, Michael. (

Kew Royal Botanical Gardens. Fungarium. 2015. (

MycoBank: Fungal Databases, Nomenclature, and Species Banks.


College of Charleston, Department of Biology. Freshwater Gastropods of North America (FWGNA). Charleston, SC. (

Dillon, Robert T. Mid-Atlantic Freshwater Snail Data. Rob Aguilar extracted the Maryland records and determined county and Baltimore City locations. 16 Feb 2015.

Hubricht, L. The Distributions of the Native Land Mollusks of the Eastern United States. Fieldiana 1359 (1985).

Orstan, Aydin. Land Snails of Black Hill Regional Park, Montgomery County, Maryland. The Maryland Naturalist: 43(3-4):20-24.

Steury, Brent W., and Timothy A. Pearce. Land Snails and Slugs (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda and Pulmonata) of Two National Parks along the Potomac River near Washington, District of Columbia. Virginia Natural History Society. Banisteria. No. 43, 3-20. 2014.

Steury, Brent W. Aquatic Snails (Gastropoda) from National Park Sites in Northern Virginia and Adjacent Maryland, with an Updated Checklist of Regional Species. Virginia Natural History Society. Banisteria. No. 44, 13-18. 2014.

Wells, Harry. Maryland records of the gastropod, Littorina littorea, with a discussion of factors controlling its southern distribution. Chesapeake Science. March 1965, Vol. 6, No. 1.


Shultz, J.W. The Harvestmen of Maryland. (

Insects (General)

Bug Guide. (

CalBug Online Database. University of California, Berkeley. Accessed 28 November 2015. (

Childs, Ken. Insect photo gallery. (

Eiseman, Charley and Noah Charney, with Jon Charlson. Tracks & Signs of Insects and Other Invertebrates: A Guide to North American Species. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA. 2010.

Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney & Taylor, Steven. A New Species of Halictophagus (Insecta: Strepsiptera: Halictopgidae) from Texas, and a Checklist of Strepsiptera from the United States and Canada. Zootaxa 1056: 1-18 (2005).

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology collection records.

Young, James. Export of specimen records. Spreadsheet provided via e-mail October 2014.

Invasive Species (General)

Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Invasive and Exotic Species of North America. (

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (SSC). Invasive Species Specialist Group. Global Invasive Species Database (


Lewis, Julian J., T.E. Bowman & D.J. Feller. A synopsis of the subterranean asellids of Maryland, U.S.A., with description of Caecidotea alleghenyensis, new species (Subspeciescea: Isopoda: Asellota). Zootaxa 2769: 54-64. 2011.


Purcell, Jennifer. Jellyfish in Chesapeake Bay and Nearby Waters. NOAA Ocean Service Education:

Lady Beetles

The Lost Ladybug Project. (


Donald Klem. Biota of Freshwater Ecosystems, Identification Manual No. 8, Freshwater Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) Of North America. 1972. (


Biechele, Lance. The Lichen Flora of the Lower Eastern Shore of the Delmarva Peninsula. Evansia 19, 1. 2002.

Harris, Richard C., Brodo, Irwin M. and Tom Tansberg. 2000. Lecanora thysanophora, a Common Leprose Lichen in Eastern North America. The Bryologist 103(4), pp 790-793.

Lendemer, J. C. & W. M. Knapp. Contributions to the Lichen Flora of Maryland: Recent Collections from the Delmarva Peninsula. Opuscula Philolichenum 4. 2007.

Lendemer, J. C., R. C. Harris & D. Ladd (2016). The faces of Bacidia schweinitzii: molecular and morphological data reveal three new species including a widespread sorediate morph. The Bryologist 119(2): 143-171.

Lichens of Soldiers Delight: Edited by Edward Uebel.

MycoBank: Fungal Databases, Nomenclature, and Species Banks.

Skorepa, A. C., A. W. Norden & D. R. Windler. Studies of the Lichens of Maryland. Castanea 42. 1977.

Skorepa, A. C., A. W. Norden & D. R. Windler. Substrate Ecology of Lichens in Maryland. Castanea 44, 3. 1979.

Skorepa, A. C. & A. W. Norden. The Rare Lichens of Maryland. Threatened and Endangered Plants and Animals of Maryland. Maryland Natural Heritage Program. 1984.

Uebel, Edward. Checklist of lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Maryland (USA). (

Uebel, Edward. List of Lichens of Maryland. August 2013. (


Orris, Patricia. A Revised Species List and Commentary on the Macroalgae of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. Estuaries, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Sept., 1980).


Maryland Department of Natural Resources: Maryland’s Wildlife Species – Mammals of Maryland. (

Assateague Island NS Mammals. (

Chapman, J. & J. Sandt. The black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus, in Maryland. Chesapeake Science 08/1977; 18(3):318-319. DOI: 10.2307/1350809.

Mammals of Montgomery County (

Solem, Bob and Jo. Howard County Bird Club mammal site records. June 2013.

Taliaferro, W. B. The Mammals of Western Maryland. Appalachian Environmental Laboratory.

Maryland Biodiversity Project

Capital News Service. Tracking Biodiversity. (

Maryland Native Plant Society. The Maryland Biodiversity Project Moves Forward and Maryland Finally Gets a Plant Atlas. Marylandica 7(2):5-7, Summer 2016.

Thompson, Jay R. Tracking Maryland's biodiversity, one creature at a time. The Baltimore Sun. 8 September 2013. (

Valliant, Michael. Documenting Maryland's Biodiversity. Tidewater Times. August 2016. (


Mayflies of Maryland. U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. (


Keifer, H. H., Baker, E. W., Kono, T., Delfinado, M., and Styer, W. E. 1982. An illustrated guide to plant abnormalities caused by eriophyid mites in North America. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook No. 573, 178 pp. (

Smith, Sherrie. Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, University of Arkansas Division of Research & Extension. Plant Health Clinic News. Issue 13, 27 May 2015. (


Hoffman, Richard L. 1999. Checklist of the Millipeds of North and Middle America. Virginia Museum of Natural History Special Publications 8, 1–553. (

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Odonata - Dragonflies and Damselflies

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Steury, Brent W. Survey for Endangered, Threatened and Rare Vascular Plants in Cove Point Marsh, Calvert County, Maryland. The Maryland Naturalist. 41(3-4): 89-96. July/December 1997.

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Steury, Brent W. Annotated List of Vascular Plants from a Nontidal Barrier Wetland along the Chesapeake Bay in Calvert County, Maryland. Southern Appalachian Botanical Society. Castanea, 64(2): 187-200. June 1999. (

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Steury, Brent W., and Charles A. Davis. The Vascular Flora of Piscataway and Fort Washington National Park, Prince Georges and Charles Counties, Maryland. Southern Appalachian Botanical Society. Castanea, 68(4): 271-299. December 2003. (

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Sturm, M. Assessment of the Effects of Feral Horses, Sika Deer and White-Tailed Deer on Assateague Island's Forest and Shrub Habitats, Final Report, May 2007. Assateague Island National Seashore. (

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Tyndall, McCarthy, Ludwig, and Rome. Vegetation of Six Carolina Bays in Maryland. Castanea 55(1). March 1990.

Tyndall, R. Wayne and Patricia M. Farr. Vegetation and Flora of a Serpentine Pine-Cedar Savanna in Maryland. Castanea 54(3). September 1989.

Tyndall, R. Wayne and Patricia M. Farr. Vegetation and Flora of the Pilot Serpentine Area in Maryland. Castanea 55(4). December 1990.

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Bartlett, Charles R., Erin R. Adams, and Anthony T. Gorzon, Jr. Planthoppers of Delaware (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea), excluding Delphacidae, with Species Incidence from Adjacent States. Zookeys (83): 1-42. Published online February 25, 2011.

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Allen, Robert T. 2006. Studies on the North American Protura I: catalog and atlas of the Protura of North America; descriptions of new species; key to the species of Eosentomon. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 156: 97-116.

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Reptiles and Amphibians

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Harris, Herbert S. Distributional survey (Amphibia/Reptilia): Maryland and the District of Columbia. Maryland Herpetological Society, Department of Herpetology, Natural History Society of Maryland, 1975.

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Molines, Karyn. Development of an Identification Process Using Digital Photographs: Marbled Salamander Migration Study. (

Rossman, D. A. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press.

Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America: Eastern and Central Regions. Taylor Trade Publishing.

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White, J., White, A. Amphibians and Reptiles of Delmarva. Tidewater Publishers: Centreville, Maryland, 2002.

Robber Flies

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Baker, N. T. and R. L. Fischer. 1975. A taxonomic and ecologic study of the Asilidae of Michigan. Great Lakes Entomologist 8 (2): 31-91.

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Bedell, P., 2010. A preliminary list of the robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) of Virginia. Banisteria, 36, pp.3-19.

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Bromley, Stanley Willard. 1928. Notes on the Genus Proctacanthus with the Descriptions of Two New Species (Diptera; Asilidæ). Psyche, 35(1), pp.12-15.

Bullington, S. W. 1986. Two new genera related to Laphria Meigen (Diptera: Asilidae), with revisions of the included species in North America north of Mexico. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, 275 pp.

Bullington, S. W. and Lavigne, R. J. 1984. Review of the genus Ommatius Wiedemann (Diptera: Asilidae) in eastern United States with descriptions of five new species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 77(4), pp.372-392.

Hine, J. S. 1911. Robberflies of the genera Promachus and Proctacanthus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 4(2), pp.153-172.

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Puterbaugh, Mary N., Skinner, John J. and Jennifer M. Miller. 2004. A Nonrandom Pattern of Rotifers Occupying Lobules of the Hepatic, Frullania eboracensis. The Bryologist 107(4), pp. 524-530

Scale Insects

Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. 2001. ScaleNet, Scales in a Subunit Query Results. 1 August 2013.®name=Nearctic&ctryname=United+States+of+America&action=Submit+Query&querytype=Subunit+Query


Smith, D. R. 1969. Nearctic sawflies I. Blennocampinae: Adults and larvae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae).—U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin No. 1397

Solomon, J. D. 1995. Guide to insect borers in North American broadleaf trees and shrubs. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook AH-706. 735 pp.

Smith, D. R. 2008. Hymenoptera (Insecta) of Plummers Island, Maryland: Symphyta and selected families of Apocrita. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington 15.

Sea Urchins

Serafy, K., and Fell, J. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Echinodermata: Echinoidea: NOAA Technical Report NMFS 33. September, 1985.


The American Arachnological Society Committee on Common Names of Acrachnids, R.G. Breene (chair). Common Names of Arachnids 2003, 5th ed., ISBN 1-929427-11-5, October 2003. (

Bradley, R. A. Common Spiders of North America. University of California Press, 2012.

Gaddy, L. L. Spiders of the Carolinas. Kollath+Stennsaas Publishing, 2009.

Levi, Herbert. American Spiders of the genera Audifia, Euryopis and Dipoena (Araneae: Theridiidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Vol. 129, No. 2. April, 1963.

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Petrunkevitch, Alexander. Synonymic index-catalogue of spiders of North, Central and South America with all adjacent islands, Greenland, Bermuda, West Indies, Terra del Fuego, Galapagos, ect. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.29, 1911.

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Tiger Beetles

Guarnieri, Frank G. Observations of Cicindela unipunctata Fabricius, 1775 (One-spotted Tiger Beetle) at Pocomoke River State Park, Worcester County, Maryland. Maryland Entomologist 5:1, September 2009. (

Knisley, C. B. , and T. D. Schultz . 1997. The Biology of Tiger Beetles and a Guide to the Species of the South Atlantic States. Virginia Museum of Natural History, Martinsville, VA.

Mawdsley, J. Maryland Tiger Beetle List (excel spreadsheet).

Pearson, D. B., Knisley, C. B., Duran, D. P., Kazilek, C. J. 2015. A Field Guide to the Tiger Beetles of the United States and Canada: Identification, Natural History, and Distribution of the Cicindelinae. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

True Bugs

Henry, T. J., and R. C. Froeschner (eds.). Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs of Canada and the Continental United States. E. J. Brill, Leiden. 958 pp. 1988.

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Wasps and Hornets

Buck, M., T. P. Cobb, J. K. Stahlhut & R. H. Hanner. Unravelling cryptic species diversity in eastern Nearctic paper wasps, Polistes (Fuscopolistes), using male genitalia, morphometrics and DNA barcoding, with descriptions of two new species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Zootaxa 3502: 1-48. (

Carpenter, James & Kojima, Jun-ichi. Checklist of the Species in the Subfamily Vespinae (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Natural History Bulletin, Ibaraki University. 1:51-92, 1997.

Grissell, E.E., and Hevel, G.F. 2005. First report of Theocolax ingens Xiao and Huang (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in the western hemisphere with a synopsis of the genus. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 107(2) pp. 254-258.

Staines, C. L. 1995. Polistes dominulus (Christ) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) New to Maryland. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 97(4): 891.

Yu, D. S., K. van Achterberg, and K. Horstmann. 2005. World Ichneumonoidea 2004. Taxonomy, Biology, Morphology and Distribution. DVD/CD. Taxapad, Vancouver.


Reynolds, John Warren. The Earthworms of Maryland (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megasolecidae and Sparganophilidae). Megadrilogica, Volume 1, Number 11, November, 1974.