Shortleaf Pine Pinus echinata P. Miller    Synonyms: Yellow Pine.
Kingdom Plantae   >   Division Coniferophyta   >   Class Pinopsida   >   Order Pinales   >   Family Pinaceae   >   Genus Pinus   

Status:

Shortleaf Pine occurs throughout the southeastern United States. It is one of the four major southern pines, the other three being Loblolly, Longleaf, and Slash. Of these, only Shortleaf and Loblolly occur in Maryland. Shortleaf Pine grows in dry or upland soils over much of Maryland, but is nowhere abundant (Brown and Brown, 1972).

Description:

Needles are two or three per bundle, slender and flexible, short only in relation to those of the other southern pines. They are longer than the needles of the more Appalachian of the Maryland pines, Virginia Pine. Cones are prickly and persist on twigs for several years after the seeds are released. The presence of resin pockets in the bark separates Shortleaf Pine from all other Maryland pines. The lower branches of Shortleaf Pine are contorted and curving (Brown and Brown, 1972). Shortleaf seedlings differ from seedlings of other pines in having a distinctive double crook at or just below the forest floor. If the top part of a young Shortleaf is killed by fire, reproductive buds in this basal crook can sprout and form new shoots. This sprouting ability gives shortleaf a competitive advantage over many other pines (North Carolina Forest Service, 2016).

Where to find:

A good place to see Shortleaf Pine in Maryland is at the Serpentine Barrens Conservation Park in Travilah, Montgomery County. Another good spot is Furnace Town in Worcester County; the large pines along the southern edge of the parking area there are all Shortleaf Pine.

There are 44 records in the project database.

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Shortleaf Pine in Caroline Co., Maryland (4/18/2017). Photo by Jim Brighton. (MBP list)

Shortleaf Pine in Worcester Co., Maryland (3/25/2017). Photo by Ashley Bradford. (MBP list)

Shortleaf Pine in Worcester Co., Maryland (3/25/2017). Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

The cones of Shortleaf Pine in Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (1/23/2019). Photo by Matt Grey. (MBP list)

Shortleaf Pine in Montgomery Co., Maryland (12/27/2015). Note the characteristic contorted and curving lower branches. Photo by Jane Hill. (MBP list)

Shortleaf Pine in Montgomery Co., Maryland (12/27/2015). Note needle cluster growing from trunk, an occasional characteristic of this species. Photo by Jane Hill. (MBP list)

The bark of Shortleaf Pine showing the diagnostic resinous pores in Worcester Co., Maryland (2/23/2013). Photo by Jim Brighton. (MBP list)

Shortleaf Pine, showing slightly twisted needles (may be two or three) and diagnostic resin pores in bark, in Montgomery Co., Maryland (4/28/2017). Photo by Bill Hill. (MBP list)

Shortleaf Pine in Caroline Co., Maryland (3/15/2018). Photo by Wayne Longbottom. (MBP list)

Shortleaf Pine needles in Worcester Co., Maryland (3/25/2017). Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

Shortleaf Pine in Caroline Co., Maryland (5/4/2019). (c) Ashley M Bradford, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Ashley Bradford. (MBP list)


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