Butternut Juglans cinerea LinnaeusS2S3 (State rare)    Synonyms: Wallia cinerea.
Kingdom Plantae   >   Division Tracheophyta   >   Class Magnoliopsida   >   Order Juglandales   >   Family Juglandaceae   >   Genus Juglans   

Status:

Butternut is a short-lived forest tree. Its populations have declined dramatically in recent decades so that now it is an uncommon to rare species, due to a canker caused by an introduced fungus, Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Weakley, et al., 2012). The fungus does not attack Black Walnut, which belongs to the same genus as Butternut.

Description:

A small- to medium-sized tree "with a short trunk and an open, scraggly crown" (Harlow, 1957). Leaves pinnately compound, with 7-17 leaflets. Terminal leaflet is usually persistent (Weakley, et al., 2012). Bark is "ashy gray, at first smooth, soon divided into broad ridges, eventually deeply furrowed, the furrows separated by narrow, flat-topped ridges" (Harlow, 1957).

Where to find:

Butternut is most common in the mountains (Brown and Brown, 1972), but is difficult to find because the canker disease has taken its toll. "Does best on deep, moist, rich soils, but also commonly found on limestone outcrops" (Harlow, 1957).

Relationships:

Has been recorded as a host plant for Banded Hairstreak.

Host plant for Luna Moth, Regal Moth, Walnut Sphinx Moth, Pecan Leafminer Moth, Bride Underwing Moth, Penitent Underwing Moth, Bride Underwing Moth, and Banded Tussock Moth, Pecan Leaf Casebearer Moth (Database of World's Lepidopteran Host Plants).

Butternut is used as a host plant for the Butternut Woollyworm.

There are 66 records in the project database.

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Butternut in Baltimore Co., Maryland (10/31/2017). Photo by Dwight Johnson. (MBP list)

The bark of Butternut in Charles Co., Maryland (8/26/2009). Photo by Kerry Wixted. (MBP list)

Butternut in Baltimore Co., Maryland (5/18/2014). Photo by Dwight Johnson. (MBP list)

Butternut in Allegany Co., Maryland (7/30/2015). Note dark brown pith. Identification verified by Chris Frye. Photo by Jim Wilkinson. (MBP list)

Butternut in Allegany Co., Maryland (7/30/2015). Photo by Jim Wilkinson. (MBP list)

A Butternut in Charles Co., Maryland (8/26/2009). Photo by Kerry Wixted. (MBP list)

Butternut in Baltimore Co., Maryland (5/18/2014). Photo by Dwight Johnson. (MBP list)

Butternut, showing chocolate-colored, chambered pith, in Baltimore Co., Maryland (3/26/2020). (c) Charlie Davis, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Charlie Davis. (MBP list)

Butternut in Baltimore Co., Maryland (3/24/2020). (c) Peter M Martin, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Peter M Martin via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

Butternut in Baltimore Co., Maryland (5/6/2019). (c) Charlie Davis, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Charlie Davis. (MBP list)

Butternut in Baltimore Co., Maryland (5/6/2019). (c) Charlie Davis, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Charlie Davis. (MBP list)

Butternut in Baltimore Co., Maryland (3/26/2020). (c) Charlie Davis, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Charlie Davis. (MBP list)

Butternut in Baltimore Co., Maryland (5/6/2019). (c) Charlie Davis, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Charlie Davis. (MBP list)

Butternut in Baltimore Co., Maryland (4/22/2019). (c) Charlie Davis, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Charlie Davis. (MBP list)

Butternut in Baltimore Co., Maryland (4/22/2019). (c) Charlie Davis, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Charlie Davis. (MBP list)


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